09 fevereiro 2006

Quilombolas in the Espirito Santo: identity and territoriality.

Sandro José da Silva
Federal university of the Espirito Santo

From the “ressemantização” of the concepts of “quilombo” and territory, new perspectives for the Remaining Communities of Quilombos in Brazil had confided. Compiling the data of some of the Remaining Communities of Quilombos the article points some of the meanings of these categories pointing out them in the organization etno-politics quilombola in the state of the Espirito Santo, its dialogues with being able them local in the construction of the direction of the rights, of the belonging and territoriality.


Different studies have shown that the development of the State of the Espirito Santo had as pillar the action of them to be able public in the agency and production of scenes favorable to the exploration and appropriation of the natural resources in detriment of other forms of management of the space as for example the traditional communities (Losada, 2002 and 2005; Ciccarone, 2004; Ferreira, 2002; Silva, 2000 and 2001).
The reorganization of the social movements on the basis of the etnização and territorialização of the conflicts has disclosed the depth of the expropriation of the traditional communities ahead of the predatory model of occupation of the ground. Traditional communities that have its existence based on the relation with the nature and specific forms socialidade are the ones that more try "the invisible" forms of violence in the field due especially its form of social organization and perception of the rights.
This "invisibilidade", fruit of the conjunction between disrespect to the Human Rights, of the lack of juridicialização of the agrarian question and expansion of the capitalist logic to the field it reedits the notion of border displayed for Jose de Souza Martins when dealing with the violence in the Field in Brazil. In the Espirito Santo the reorganization of the ethnic movements - aboriginal populations and quilombolas -, it comes if giving of slow form and facing innumerable reactions on the part of being able them public that they oppose to less recognize the especific of the ethnic rights for unfamiliarity that for the option of the development model. These movements have a double aspect therefore of a side are on the adhesion of the Brazilian State to the international norms as Convention 169 e, of another one, the proper organization of the ethnic communities in the rework of the notion of rights. The person from de state of Espirito Santo scene seems to persist in the unfamiliarity and refuses of the agreement of the ethnic rights on the part of the public administration, generating innumerable scenes of breaking of the Human Rights in the field.
This article intends to carry through a reading of the new perspectives where the Remaining Communities of Quilombos are being understood in Brazil and to follow the methodologies that the together research to these communities in the state of the San Spirit has guided it to you. We go to follow two basic perspectives of these rights: the identity and the territory.

These categories are basic because as Andrade & Treccani (2000:596)"the right of quilombolas to the land is associated with the right to the preservation of its culture and specific social organization. This means that, when proceeding the title deed, the Public Power will have to make respecting it the proper forms that the group uses to occupy its land ".
If to consider the relative legislation to the Remaining Communities of Quilombos vere them to me it importance given to the relation enters the process of auto-identification and the territorialização. The article 2o of decree 4887/2003 after to define what they are these communities indicates in its paragraph 1o that "for the ends of this Decree, the characterization of the remainders of the communities of the quilombos will be certified by means of self definition of the proper community "while it defines after that in the paragraph 2o that" for the measurement and landmark of lands, criteria of territoriality will be taken in consideration indicated by the remainders of the communities of the quilombos, being authorized to the interested community to present the parts techniques for the procedural instruction "(free translate).

ANDRADE & TRECCANI. Terras de Quilombo. In: LARANJEIRA, Raimundo (Coord.), Direito Agrário Brasileiro, São Paulo: LTR, 2000, pp. 595-656.
CICCARONE, Celeste. Et al. Debate: povos indígenas e regularização territorial no Espírito Santo – uma questão aberta. Mosaico Revista de Ciências Sociais, Vitória, V.1, n1, p.295-309, 1998.
LOSADA, Vânia Maria. A Ilusão das terras devolutas: colonização particular, exploração madeireira e grilagem, 1889-1930. in: Dimensões. Revista de História da Ufes. Vitória: Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, CCHN, No 17, 2005, Vitória, ES.
LOSADA, Vânia Maria. Nem selvagens nem cidadãos: índios da Vila de Nova Almeida e a usurpação de suas terras durante o século XIX. Dimensões. Revista de História da Ufes. Vitória: Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, CCHN, No 14, 2002.
SILVA, Sandro José da. Legalidade e assimetria: Índios, terras e poder local no Espírito Santo. IV reunião de Antropologia do Merco Sul. Universidade Federal do Paraná, 2001.
SILVA, Sandro José da. Tempo e Espaço entre os Tupiniquim. Dissertação de Mestrado. Campinas, UNICAMP. 2000. 300 páginas.

Nenhum comentário: